You can count the number of cells before a weekday (e.g., Thursday) in a period using the SUMPRODUCT function.

**Example:** You are working with a worksheet with the first name in column A, the last name in column B, the date of appointment in column C, and weekdays in column D.

**Question: How many appointments are before Thursday in 2022?**

=SUMPRODUCT(--(WEEKDAY(C2:C12) < 5), --(YEAR(C2:C12) = 2022))

=SUMPRODUCT((WEEKDAY(C2:C12) < 5)*1, (YEAR(C2:C12) = 2022)*1)

The result returns 3, so three appointments are before Thursday in 2022.

Please note that the formula uses the default return type for the WEEKDAY function, which returns from 1 (Sunday) to 7 (Saturday). As a result, Thursday returns 5. The weekdays before Thursday are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday.

**Explanation: **

- Step 1: WEEKDAY(C2:C12): The result returns the day of the week for each date;
- Step 2: (WEEKDAY(C2:C12)<5): The result returns TRUE if a date is earlier than Thursday; otherwise, it returns FALSE;
- Step 3: (YEAR(C2:C12) = 2022): The result returns TRUE if a date is in 2022; otherwise, it returns FALSE;
- Step 4: The double hyphen (or times one) converts TRUE into one and FALSE into zero;
- Step 5: The SUMPRODUCT function returns the sum of the products of the new array.

**Notes: The SUMPRODUCT function**

The SUMPRODUCT function adds all the multiplication results for all arrays.

**Formula:**

=SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2], …)

**Explanations:**

– Array1 is required; the first array is to multiply and add.

– Array2 is optional; the second array is to multiply and add.