You cannot work on the worksheet that is protected directly if you do not have the password. However, you can copy all the contents and paste to a new worksheet or a new workbook, then edit the worksheet. This way does not really unlock the worksheet, but you can create a new worksheet that is exactly the same as the one protected.
Step 1: Select the contents using the shortcut "Ctrl+A" or select the whole worksheet by clicking the left-top corner;
Step 2: Open a new worksheet and click the first cell same as the original.
For example, if the protected worksheet starting from the first cell A1, click A1 in the new worksheet;
Step 3: Paste the contents or the whole worksheet to a new worksheet using the shortcut "Ctrl+V" or right-click and select "Paste" from the dialog box.
Step 4: You can work on the data range in the new worksheet, then format it the same as the one protected when you complete the work.